Classroom Resources (2) |

View Standards
**Standard(s): **
[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 8 :

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 25 :

*Example: Given two triangles with two pairs of congruent corresponding sides and a pair of congruent included angles, show that there must be a sequence of rigid motions will map one onto the other.*

8 ) Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence, angle-side-angle (ASA), side-angle-side (SAS), and side-side-side (SSS), follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. [G-CO8]

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 25 :

25. Verify criteria for showing triangles are congruent using a sequence of rigid motions that map one triangle to another.

a. Verify that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.

b. Verify that two triangles are congruent if (but not only if) the following groups of corresponding parts are congruent: angle-side-angle (ASA), side-angle-side (SAS), side-side-side (SSS), and angle-angle-side (AAS).

In Module 1, Topic D, students use the knowledge of rigid motions developed in Topic C to determine and prove triangle congruence. At this point, students have a well-developed definition of congruence supported by empirical investigation. They can now develop an understanding of traditional congruence criteria for triangles, such as SAS, ASA, and SSS, and devise formal methods of proof by direct use of transformations. As students prove congruence using the three criteria, they investigate why AAS also leads toward a viable proof of congruence and why they cannot use SSA to establish congruence. Examining and establishing these methods of proving congruency leads to analysis and application of specific properties of lines, angles, and polygons in Topic E.

View Standards
**Standard(s): **
[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 4 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 5 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 8 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 10 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 11 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 12 :

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 13 :

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 21 :

*Example: △ABC is congruent to △XYZ since a reflection followed by a translation maps △ABC onto △XYZ.*

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 25 :

*Example: Given two triangles with two pairs of congruent corresponding sides and a pair of congruent included angles, show that there must be a sequence of rigid motions will map one onto the other.* [MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 30 :

*Example: Prove that rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.*

4 ) Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [G-CO4]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 5 :

5 ) Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [G-CO5]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 8 :

8 ) Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence, angle-side-angle (ASA), side-angle-side (SAS), and side-side-side (SSS), follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. [G-CO8]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 10 :

10 ) Prove theorems about triangles. *Theorems include measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180*^{o}, base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent, the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length, and the medians of a triangle meet at a point. [G-CO10]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 11 :

11 ) Prove theorems about parallelograms. *Theorems include opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent; the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other; and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.* [G-CO11]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 12 :

12 ) Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. *Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.* [G-CO12]

[MA2015] GEO (9-12) 13 :

13 ) Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. [G-CO13]

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 21 :

21. Represent transformations and compositions of transformations in the plane (coordinate and otherwise) using tools such as tracing paper and geometry software.

a. Describe transformations and compositions of transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs, using informal and formal notation.

b. Compare transformations which preserve distance and angle measure to those that do not.

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 22 : 22. Explore rotations, reflections, and translations using graph paper, tracing paper, and geometry software.

a. Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the image of the transformed figure using graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software.

b. Specify a sequence of rotations, reflections, or translations that will carry a given figure onto another.

c. Draw figures with different types of symmetries and describe their attributes.

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 24 : 24. Define congruence of two figures in terms of rigid motions (a sequence of translations, rotations, and reflections); show that two figures are congruent by finding a sequence of rigid motions that maps one figure to the other.

25. Verify criteria for showing triangles are congruent using a sequence of rigid motions that map one triangle to another.

a. Verify that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.

b. Verify that two triangles are congruent if (but not only if) the following groups of corresponding parts are congruent: angle-side-angle (ASA), side-angle-side (SAS), side-side-side (SSS), and angle-angle-side (AAS).

30. Develop and use precise definitions of figures such as angle, circle, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

[MA2019] GEO-19 (9-12) 31 : 31. Justify whether conjectures are true or false in order to prove theorems and then apply those theorems in solving problems, communicating proofs in a variety of ways, including flow chart, two-column, and paragraph formats.

a. Investigate, prove, and apply theorems about lines and angles, including but not limited to: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; the points on the perpendicular bisector of a line segment are those equidistant from the segment's endpoints.

b. Investigate, prove, and apply theorems about triangles, including but not limited to: the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle is 180?; the base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem using triangle similarity.

c. Investigate, prove, and apply theorems about parallelograms and other quadrilaterals, including but not limited to both necessary and sufficient conditions for parallelograms and other quadrilaterals, as well as relationships among kinds of quadrilaterals.

In Module 1, Topic G, students review material covered throughout the module. Additionally, students discuss the structure of geometry as an axiomatic system.